Memory Timming

6 09 2008





CL 2.5
RAS to CAS 3
RAS Precharge 2
552 – write
1649 – read


RAS Precharge 2 (9)
1647 – read
547 – write

RAS to CAS 2
RAS Precharge 2
1668 – read
571 – write

1688 – read
538 – write

1688 read 570 write

1701 read 588 write

CL2.5-2-2-7 Burst 8


Kode Beep Bios

6 09 2008
ami bios

ami bios

kode beep                   deskripsi
1                        dram refresh failure
2                        parity circuit failure
3                        base 64k ram failure
4                        system timer failure
5                        processor failure
6                        keyb controller gate a20 error
7                        virtual mode exception error
8                        display memory r/w test failure
9                        rom-bios checksum failure
10                       cmos shutdown register r/w failure
11                       cache memory bad, do not enable cache

kode beep
1xpanjang    problem di modul memori (cek apakah memori terpasang dg benar)
1xpanjang+2xpendek    problem di video (cek apakah vga terpasang dg benar)
1xpanjang+3xpanjang     problem di video (cek apakah vga/memori card rusak/tidak)
terus menerus        masalah di memori/video (cek motherboard)

Virtual Memory in Windows XP

26 07 2008
Version 1.6 — Last Updated February 21, 2006

by Alex Nichol
(MS-MVP – Windows Storage Management/File Systems)
© 2002-2005 by Author, All Rights Reserved


This page attempts to be a stand-alone description for general users of the way Virtual Memory operates in Windows XP. Other pages on this site are written mainly for Windows 98/ME (see Windows 98 & Win ME Memory Management) and, while a lot is in common, there are significant differences in Windows XP.

What is Virtual Memory?

A program instruction on an Intel 386 or later CPU can address up to 4GB of memory, using its full 32 bits. This is normally far more than the RAM of the machine. (The 32nd exponent of 2 is exactly 4,294,967,296, or 4 GB. 32 binary digits allow the representation of 4,294,967,296 numbers — counting 0.) So the hardware provides for programs to operate in terms of as much as they wish of this full 4GB space as Virtual Memory, those parts of the program and data which are currently active being loaded into Physical Random Access Memory (RAM). The processor itself then translates (‘maps’) the virtual addresses from an instruction into the correct physical equivalents, doing this on the fly as the instruction is executed. The processor manages the mapping in terms of pages of 4 Kilobytes each – a size that has implications for managing virtual memory by the system.

Read the rest of this entry »